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Title  Line Plot 
Graph Displayed  class 
Graph Subgroup  General Principles 
ClassificationGraph Type  Line Plot 
Code Added  Yes 
Date  Original 
Original Date  26.08.2011 
Modified Date 

Contributor/Email  fabrice.bancken@novartis.com 
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Disclaimer  The opinions expressed in this document are those of the author and may not represent the opinions of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or other authors. 
Type of Data  Categorical and Continuous 
Description and Purpose 
The line plot displays either summary data (e.g., mean and 95 CI limits)or a subject's individual measurements (otherwise known as subject's profile) summary data at a series of time points. In both cases, the X axis typically represents time, and therefore must be a quantitative axis, in the sense that the distance on the graph between 2 time points should be proportional to the time difference between those timepoints For summary data,, the Y axis represents the summary results at the time point under consideration which  in most cases  are represented by a symbol and (vertical) error bar. For subject's profiles, a symbol located at (x,y) represents the result y(laboratory result, vital signs, etc) for the subject under consideration at the time point x. (Example 4) Connecting lines: The symbols representing points estimates may be connected with lines to outline trends over time. Special features: Margin : A margin can be drawn in the plot to hold a particular result. For example, when depicting the change from baseline at each time point during a study [based on available data at the timepoint], one may want to have a margin or side panel in which sensitivity analysis results are shown (LOCF, or other estimate obtained with more sophisticated techniques accounting for missing data). (see Example 1) A good practice also to display the number of subjects who contributed to the summary data at timepoint Xi (i=1, ...n) (see Example 1). This can be displayed using text or using a bottom small side panel holding another lien plott (see Example 2) 
Datasets  Other 
Data 
* figure8_data.sas7bdat: Data used for summary line plot example 
Example1Title  Grouped Line Plot for summary data (with margin / side panel) 
Example1Description 
This example is a grouped (2 groups) line plot. The groups are distinguished by using different colors, line patterns and symbols). Symbols represent the point estimates and lines are joining those together. This example also illustrates the use of a side panel (right side), which can provide another point of reference, against which one can benchmark the overtime evolution (left panel). In this case, it represents the result at the 'endpoint'. The number of observations used to compute the point estimate is provided in the bottom part of the plot, both for the overtime part and for the endpoint. One can readily see that the endpoint is not solely using available data at Week 12, but is probably using algorithms to account for missing data (e.g., LOCF imputation). The example uses two colors with different luminosities, therefore will print with different grayscale levels on a B/W printer. 
Example1Image  Click on figure for enlarged image 
Example2Title  Grouped Line Plot for summary statistics with number observations depicted as a side line plot 
Example2Description 
This example is a grouped (2 groups) line plot. The groups are distinguished by using different colors, line patterns and symbols). Symbols represent the point estimates and lines are joining those together. This example also illustrates the use of a side panel (bottom side), to represent GRAPHICALLY the number of observations used to compute the point estimate and variability, over time. The example uses two colors with different luminosities, therefore will print with different grayscale levels on a B/W printer. 
Example2Image  Click on figure for enlarged image 
Example3Title  Grouped Line Plot for Summary Statistics 
Example3Description 
This example is a grouped (2 groups) line plot. The groups are distinguished by using different colors, line patterns and symbols). Symbols represent the point estimates and lines are joining those together. This example also illustrates the use of a side panel (bottom side), to depict as text the number of observations used to compute the point estimate and variability, over time. The example uses two colors with different luminosities, therefore will print with different grayscale levels on a B/W printer. 
Example3Image  Click on figure for enlarged image 
Example4Title  Subject's profile of multiple lab parameters (Author: Susan Schwarz) 
Example4Description 
This is a multipanel, grouped line plot. The grouping variable here is the type of lab parameter. Each panel represents an individual subject. The xaxis represents the study day that the lab was measured and it is important to keep this scale consistent across each panel and to keep the scale appropriately spaced (1 unit represents the same difference across the scale). The yaxis represents the lab value divided by the upper limit of normal for the specific patient. The value is read as ‘times upper limit of normal’ where a value of 1 would mean that the result was normal. Any value above or below 1 would be considered above the upper limit or normal or below the upper limit of normal respectively. The tan shaded area represents those values that are < 1 time the upper limit of normal. This shaded band can easily be altered within the code. Note that if grayscale is used, adjustment to the shading may be necessary. 
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References  Schwartz, Susan. 2009 “Clinical Trial Reporting Using SAS/GRAPH® SG Procedures.” Proceedings of the SAS Global Forum 2009 Conference. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Available at http://support.sas.com/resources/papers/proceedings09/1742009.pdf. 
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Software Program  SAS 
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Graphical Parameters 

CodeExample1  Attachment  lgplot_example01.sas 
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CodeExample2  Attachment  lgplot_example02.sas 
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CodeExample3  Attachment*  lgplot_example03.sas 
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CodeExample4  Attachment*  lgplot_example04.sas 
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Keywords  longitudinal line confidence interval 
Disclaimer  The opinions expressed in this document are those of the author and may not represent the opinions of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or other authors. 
Permission 
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF ERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT OLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. 
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I  Attachment  Action  Size  Date  Who  Comment 

png  Example01.png  manage  40.1 K  13 Sep 2011  08:47  FabriceBancken  Example 1 of line plot 
png  Example01rep.png  manage  13.2 K  07 Oct 2011  10:00  FabriceBancken  Representative example of line plot 
png  Example01small.png  manage  22.4 K  13 Sep 2011  08:52  FabriceBancken  Example 1 of line plot (small) 
png  Example02.png  manage  44.1 K  13 Sep 2011  15:31  MaryBanach  Example 02 of line plot 
png  Example02small.png  manage  25.8 K  13 Sep 2011  08:58  FabriceBancken  Example 2 of line plot (small) 
png  Example03.png  manage  38.9 K  13 Sep 2011  15:31  MaryBanach  Example 3 of line plot 
png  Example03small.png  manage  22.6 K  13 Sep 2011  09:01  FabriceBancken  Example 3 of line plot (small) 