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Biostatistical Methods for Clinical Research We wish to thank David Glidden, from the University of California, San Francisco, Course Director for Training in Clinical ...
2 Arm Design In a 2 arm design there are two treatment groups. This could be two different treatments or it could be one treatment and a control group. Each arm of ...
3 Arm Design In a 3 arm design there are three treatment groups. This could be three different treatments or it could be two different treatments and a control group ...
Adverse Event Analysis Dataset (ADAE) ADAE Data Set The ADAE dataset contains 1191 rows and 55 columns. ADAE Data Definition File Variable LabelType Controlled ...
Chemistry Lab Analysis Data Set (ADLBC) ADLBC Data Set The ADLBC dataset contains 21,792 rows and 58 columns. Note that this data set is a condensed version of the ...
ADRACE Valid Values AFRICAN DESCENT (NEGRO, BLACK) CAUCASIAN EAST/SOUTHEST ASIAN (BURMESE, CHINESE, JAPANSE, KOREAN, MONGOLIAN, VIETNAMESE) HISPANIC (MEXICAN ...
ADRACEN Code Value Code Text 1 CAUCASIAN 2 AFRICAN DESCENT 3 EAST/SOUTHEAST ASIAN 4 WESTERN ASIAN 5 HISPANIC 6 OTHER Return to ADAE ADLBC
AECAUS Code ValueCode Text NONENONE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE PROBABLE PROBABLE REMOTE REMOTE N/A Return to ADAE
AGEGRP Valid Values 65 80 65 80 Return to ADAE ADLBC
AGEGRPN Code Value Code Text 1 65 2 65 80 3 80 Return to ADAE ADLBC
Analysis of Variance Lead Author(s): NancyHills The term analysis of variance (ANOVA) describes a group of inferential statistical tests that were developed by ...
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI ...
ARM Valid Values Placebo Xanomeline High Dose Xanomeline Low Dose Return to ADAE ADLBC
ARMCD Valid Values Pbo Scrnfail Xan Hi Xan Lo Return to ADAE ADLBC
ARMCDN Code Value Code Text 0 Placebo 1 Xanomeline Low Dose 2 Xanomeline High Dose Return to ADAE ADLBC
YinglinXia 10 Jun 2010 AUCGEE.sas: Area under curve macro for GEE models aucgee.sas7bdat: The data set used in the Example using macro AUCGEE ExampleRun ...
About Us CTSpedia started as a pilot project initiated in 2007 at UCSF. The project was initiated to form an information resource created by researchers for researchers ...
Adaptive Design Discussions Links to References in Adaptive Clinical Trial Design Meeting Minutes April 18, 2011 Meeting What do we know? Jim spoke about new ...
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Additional Descriptors for Interventional Studies N of 1Crossover Parallel GroupSingle Group, etc. Statistical intent (superiority, non inferiority, equivalence ...
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What happens to your grant application after it is submitted to NIH? What happens to your grant application after it is submitted to NIH? All grant applications ...
All Graphics Form Entries Return to Statistical Graphics Home #ReturnTop All Graphs Return to Top Graph Types Return to Top Software Program Return to Top Return ...
Optional Biostat Ethics Case Study Return to Biostat Ethics Case Study page. NEW Case Study with the Optional Format Click on the "Optional Biostat Case ...
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Analysis of Variance Lead Author(s): NancyHills The term analysis of variance (ANOVA) describes a group of inferential statistical tests that were developed by ...
Analysis and Reporting in Reproducible Research Return to Reproducible Research Methodology Document Processing LaTeX Literate Programming Approaches Aimed ...
Only certain software applications are capable of estimating parameters with weights or with certain models. It is important to consider if the software currently ...
Archive CTSpedia Materials Return to CTSpedia Web Home Iris' Corner ONLINE JOURNAL CLUB Success Stories/ BERD Watch DiscussionForum Collaborations: Adaptive ...
Archive of Original Graphics Work Return to Contribute Graphics Class Graph Forms Labs/Liver ECG/Vitals %SEARCH{ "META:FIELD. name .GraphSubgroup. value . ECGVitals ...
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Ascertainment Bias In scientific research, ascertainment bias occurs when false results are produced by non random sampling and conclusions made about an entire ...
The associated handbook has a wealth of information that includes the purpose of the study, the design of the study, who is included in the study, types of variables ...
Assumptions: Cumulative Incidence and Incidence Rate Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Assumption No Temporal/Secural Trends Calculating cumulative incidence with ...
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Attachments and Linking Return to Help As you have encountered throughout CTSpedia, we use attachments and links frequently in our work.In most instructional materials ...
Baseline Data Lead Author(s): Information gathered at the beginning of a study from which variations found in the study are measured. A person's health status ...
Return to the Safety Graphics Home Page Histograms ( Last updated by Richard Forshee on September 17, 2010) #ReturnTop Basic Histogram Examples Type of data ...
Bernoulli distribution In probability theory and statistics, the Bernoulli distribution , named after Swiss scientist Jakob Bernoulli, is a discrete probability distribution ...
Best Practices Recommendations Contributed by: SusanDuke 1 Content Every graph should stand on its own 1 It should tell its story without a need for ...
Confounding Bias Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Properties of a True Confounder Is the exposure (or predictor variable), marked E, associated with disease ...
Reducing Confounding During Data Analysis Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Methods for Reducing Confounding During Data Analysis: Stratification In the data ...
Reducing Confounding During Study Design Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Methods for Reducing Confounding During Study Design The causal diagram below presents ...
Properties of a Confounder Association with Disease Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Refined Properties of a True Confounder Association with Disease When ...
Properties of a Confounder Association with Exposure Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Refined Properties of a True Confounder Association with Exposure ...
Confounder or Intermediate Variable? Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD What Is Not A Confounder? A variable that is an intermediate step in the causal path under ...
Types of Confounding Bias Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Magnitude and Direction of Confounding After adjusting for confounding variables, we will have a measure ...
Bias or Systematic Error (Validity) Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Origin of the Term Bias Bias refers to a systematic error. The origin of the word appears ...
Measurement Bias Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Technical Definition: It is the bias, or deviation from the truth, that it is caused when any measurement collected ...
Selection Bias Technical definition: Bias that is caused when individuals have different probabilities of being included in the study according to relevant study ...
Selection Bias Analytic Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Unbiased Sampling in Analytic Studies In an analytic study or case control study, we are looking ...
Selection Bias Cohort Study or Randomized Clinical Trial Selection Bias in Cohort Studies Less Likely Among initially selected subjects, selection bias in a cohort ...
Selection Bias Cross Sectional Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Cross sectional Study Design As seen in the diagram below, there is an underlying cohort ...
Selection Bias Descriptive Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Unbiased Sampling in Descriptive Studies Here is a schematic representation of what we hope ...
Biological Marker See Also Biomarker
BiomedExperts http://www.biomedexperts.com/ Explore and expand your scientific network The combination of scientific knowledge and experience is the key success ...
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Biostatistics Software Free Statistical Software from John C. Pezzulo, PhD G Power PC Size R Language Vanderbilt PS: Power and Sample Size Calculation GLIMMPSE Software ...
Biostat Syllabus %SEARCH{ "META:FIELD. name .TypeofCourse. value . Syllabus" type "regex" nonoise "on" header " Title CTSA Contributor/Contact ...
Boxplot Examples Coming Soon
ArthurWatts 25 Aug 2010
Abbreviated T Test Macro Name BriefTTest.sas Description This macro creates abbreviated TTest output and a dataset with theTTest results. Macro ...
Clinical Research Case Studies Sample Size Outliers Length Bias in Flu Symptom Duration Measurements Small Samples Endangered Species Study Comparing Classification ...
CTSA Clinical Translational Sciences Awards http://www.ctsaweb.org/ Overview Drawing from experience of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research and extensive community ...
Calling Macros Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD To use one of these macros in your program, or within another macro you create to post here, put statements like ...
Case Control Odds Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Case Control Odds Ratio Odds ratio (OR) of exposure in cases and controls is the measure of association ...
Case Control Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Case Control Design The main advantage of case control designs is that it allows you to sample the experience ...
Data Case Studies Treeview Parent Child Topics Contributors CR Case Studies
Box Plot Lead Author(s): Erin Dienes Definition of Box Plot A box plot, also known as a box and whiskers plot, is a graphical method that is based on the quartiles ...
An Example Using Categorize sampledata.htm: A look at the data structure. (To download the sample data) Getvarlist.sas: A macro that Categorize would call ...
Causal Diagrams or Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Causal Diagrams The stick and box figure below is known as ...
Comparative Effectiveness Research BERD members are engaged in CER in a variety of ways. BERD liasons to the CER KFC currently are Frank Harrell and Chang Yu of Vanderbilt ...
Censoring Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Three Ways Censoring Occurs 1) Death (if death is not the study outcome) 2) Loss to follow up (refuse, move, or ...
ArthurWatts 21 Jul 2011 Chisquare.sas: Counts and compares # of events between groups
Chi Square versus Fisher's Exact FORUM QUESTION: Julia St George 22 May 2009 12:00 Can you explain the difference between Fisher's exact test and the chi square ...
Return to Contribute Graphics Type of Graph: Last updated by on Type of data: Type of analysis: Description and purpose: Examples: Basic ...
Return to Stat Graph Home Title:Most Frequent On Therapy AE Sorted by Risk Difference
Return to Stat Graph Home Title: Forest Plot of Hazard Ratios by Patient Subgroups
Return to Stat Graph Home Title: Time to AE Occurrence
Return to Stat Graph Home Title: P risk (Risk Difference) Plot of Treatment Emergent Adverse Events at PT Level
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Image text 25 Title text 25 Graph Subgroup radio 4 General Principles ...
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Change from Baseline by Baseline: Categorical QTc Analysis
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Profile Plot: Mean QTc by Time and Treatment
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title:QT Correction Comparison
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Individual QTc display
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Image text 25 Title text 25 Graph Subgroup radio 4 General Principles ...
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Scatter Plot of Maximum Transaminase versus Maximum Total Bilirubin
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Mean (and Mean Difference) of ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) by Treatment : Profile Over Time
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title : Lab Shift Plots: Baseline versus Maximum
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Lab Parameter Shift Plots, Baseline vs. Study
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Time Course of Lab Test Values, Individual Subject
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Liver Function Tests by Trial Day: At Risk Subjects
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Cumulative Incidence for Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): Elevations 3 Times the Upper Limit of Normal
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Distribution of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) by Time and Treatment
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Liver Test Safety Panel Over Time, Baseline vs. On study
Return to Statistical Graphics Home Title: Frequency Plot of the Change from Baseline in Alanine Aminotransferase by Visit
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Image text 25 Title text 25 Graph Subgroup radio 4 General Principles ...
Clinical Bias The study of medical conditions begins with anecdotal reports. By their nature, such reports only include those referred for diagnosis and treatment ...
Clinical Epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions ...
Header Overview Author(s): Definition
Clinical Research Vocabulary Research Topics Keywords in Educational Materials Statistical Graphics Terms
BarbaraGrimes 20 Jan 2009 code book sample
Cohen's Kappa Cohen's Kappa stastistic is a measure of the inter rater agreement. This statistic is to be used in situations when there are only two raters and the ...
Cohort Study Lead Author(s): Mark Pletcher, MD; Jeff Martin, MD Definition of a Cohort Study In a cohort study, the study base is an explicitly defined group ...
Foswiki::Meta HASH(0xbac4e938) StatToolsTopic022 n0snN4XY5VLAIAbfS rY3w 1 Tools Overall Rating 0,Code Works Well 0,Good Instructions 0 2011 06 30
General Adverse Events Graphics Comment Page Return to Safety Graphics Home Page #MostFrequentAE Most Frequent On Therapy AE Sorted by Risk Difference Please add ...
ECG Graphics Comment Page Return to Safety Graphics Home Page #CategoricalQTc Change from Baseline by Baseline: Categorical QTc Analysis Please add comments to the ...
LFT Graphics Comment Page Return to Safety Graphics Home Page #LabShiftPlots Lab Shift Plots: Baseline versus Maximum Please add comments to the box and then click ...
Common Biostatistical Problems 1 P values for establishing negative conclusions 1 Misleading and vague phrasing 1 Speculation about low power 1 Exclusive ...
Common Rule Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater ...
Community Engagement Links CTSI Community Engagement FAQ
Composite Null Hypothesis Lead Author(s): Definition of Composite Null Hypothesis
Concordance Correlation Coefficient The concordance correlation coefficient is used to measure the agreement between two variables, specifically to evaluate reproducibility ...
Confidence Interval Lead Author(s):
Confidence intervals (CIs) Lead Author(s): PeterBacchetti These are used to indicate the uncertainty around an estimated or observed association, difference, or ...
Return to CTSpedia Web Home Conflicts of interest Physicians should not allow a conflict of interest to influence medical judgment. In some cases, conflicts are ...
Biostatistics Consulting Assistance Bacchetti Biostatistics Consulting Assistance Listed below are some web pages that are potentially useful for biostatistical consulting ...
Articles #BacktoTop Table of Contents #StatComputing Statistical Computing and Graphics Statistical Computing and Graphics Name of Article Click on ...
Continuous Data / Variable Lead Author(s): Definition of Continuous Data / Variable
Continuous Random Variable A continuous random variable is one that can assume values corresponding to any of the points contained in an interval. Some examples include ...
Name Type Size Values Tooltip Message Dataset Title textarea 80 Contributor/Email text 80 CTSA checkbox 6 Alabama ...
Contribute Graphics Return to Safety Graphics Home #ReturnTop Contributing Safety Graphics Instructions for Contributing Safety Graphics Add Title at ...
Contribute Statistical Tools Instructions for Contributing Statistical Tools Listing of Statistical Tools by Last Modified Return to CTSpedia Web Home
Contributing Vetted Graphs Return to Contribute Graphics LFT Graphs Instructions for Contributing LFT Graphs ECG.Vitals Graphs Instructions for ...
Control Group See Also Control
Instructions for editing Controversies You can edit, paste, or type text on one side or the other of an existing point by clicking the "Edit" button below the table ...
To add a new point in a Controversy page: 1. Click the Edit button on this page.2. Copy everything from "Heading text here" to the bottom of the page.3. Click the ...
BarbaraGrimes 29 May 2009 Checklist for Corr Macro Check the value of n number of number of subjects with non missing values for both var1 and var2. Is this the number ...
Corr.sas: Macro for Pearson and Spearman correlations
Correlation Lead Author(s): NancyHills Measures of correlation are not statistical tests of inference, but are actually descriptive statistical measures which ...
Cost Benefit Analysis Lead Author(s): Definition of Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost Effectiveness Analysis A cost effectiveness analysis compares decisions based on units of money per health outcome. For example, dollars per life saved, dollars ...
Course Materials Return to Educational Materials Home Page Add New Materials Instructions for Submitting Course Materials: Click on the "Add Educational ...
Covariate Lead Author(s): Definition of Covariates
Cox and Proportional Hazard FORUM QUESTION: BarbaraGrimes 24 Aug 2009 13:09 If the proportional hazards assumption is not met for a predictor in a Cox model, ...
Proportional Hazards Regression See discussion in Vanderbilt Biostatistics
Cross Sectional Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of a Cross Sectional Study A cross sectional study can be described as a sample of a population ...
Cumulative Distribution Coming Soon
DATEIMP Code Value Code Text D Date was imputed Date not imputed Return to ADAE
LSM Plot Mixed Data to Run Macro Lead Author(s): Yinglin Xia, PhD Date Borrower Revision Number Comments Automatic Date Field FirstLast Rev ...
CDISC Data Set Page CDISC FDA Pilot Data Sets The following analysis datasets are based upon the first CDISC Pilot, a collobarative pilot project with FDA and ...
Datasets Return to CTSpedia Web Home CDISC FDA Pilot Datasets See CDISC FDA Pilot Datasets Vanderbilt Datasets See Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University ...
Decision Analysis Lead Author(s): Clay Johnston, MD, PhD Decision analysis is an explicit, quantitative method for making (or at least thinking about) decisions ...
Decision Tree Lead Author(s): Definition of Decision Tree
Mean The mean, also called the average or the arithmetic mean , is often used as a summary of the center of a set of numbers, such as the ages of all the participants ...
Median The median of a set of quantitative data (a set of numbers) is the middle number when the measurements are arranged in ascending or descending order. Suppose ...
Mode The mode is the measurement that occurs most frequently in the data set. The mode is a measure of central tendency as it shows where the data tend to concentrate ...
Definition of an Outlier An observation that is unusually small or large relative to the other values in the data set is called an outlier. Outliers are typically ...
Reliability Lead Author(s): Erin Esp Definition Reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or of a measuring instrument. In short, reliability ...
Robust Statistics A robust statistic is a statistic that is resistant to errors in the results caused by outliers or other small departures from model assumptions ...
Degrees of Freedom Lead Author(s): ErikGregory Definition of Degrees of Freedom To perform t tests we often need to determine the number of degrees of freedom ...
Outcome or Dependent Variable In regression models, these terms refer to the variable that is to be predicted or explained in terms of the predictor or independent ...
Descriptive Study Lead Author(s): Definition of a Descriptive Study
Descriptive Variable Lead Author(s): Definition of a Descriptive Variable
Comparing Classification\Diagnostic Models Joel is a clinical researcher who has developed two new tests for diagnosing Influenza, call them test A and test B. The ...
Images, Diagrams and Examples Images Tables Diagrams Figures
Dichotomous Outcome JPEG Dichotomous Outcome:
Difference versus Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Ratio versus Difference in Cohort Study There are two basic ways to compare measures of association ...
Directions for Uploading Rscripts Lead Author(s): Sally Thurston, PhD Steps to upload and document a macro (here: R macro): Go to appropriate site (Rscripts, ...
Directions and Documentation Macro Header Form Directions for Completing Macro Header Form Directions for Uploading RScripts Directions for Uploading R Scripts ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: BERD Pain Presentation On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the name of the contributor. Please ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: P Value Fallacy and Error Rates On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the name of the contributor ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: Patient Level Data Management Requirements On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the name of the ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: Topics Face to Face: ROC Analysis On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the name of the contributor ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: Topics Face to Face: Omics and Biomarkers and BROADER On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the ...
Return to Discussion Forum Title: Face to Face: Educating Our Colleagues On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion and the name of the contributor ...
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Current Topics Under Discussion Ordered by Date of Last Update Return to CTSpedia Web Home ForumBiostatistics Discussion Forums Click on Forum to ask a question ...
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Discussion Online Journal Club Meeting 1 (May 24, 2012) Return to Online Journal Club Discssion Video Recording of Jonathan's Gelfond's Presentation YouTube Recording ...
Discussion Online Journal Club Meeting 2 June, 2012 Return to Online Journal Club Discussion Title: P Values and Confidence Intervals Video Recordings: Peter ...
Discussion Online Journal Club Meeting 3 (March 28, 2013) Return to Online Journal Club Discssion Video Recording of Knut Wittkowski's Presentation avaliable following ...
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Return to Safety Graphics Home Dot plots Contributed by: Mat Soukup (email: Mat.Soukup #64;fda.hhs.gov) Type of Data: continuous Type of Analysis: univariate ...
Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Attributes Contributor text 100 Karen Pieper, MS CTSA Institution text 100 Duke ...
Ecological Study Lead Author(s): Definition of an Ecological Study
Data on Educational Materials
Links to Biostat Quizzes and Surveys REGRESS Survey The REGRESS survey is still in development. If you would like to use it, please contact to get a copy of the ...
Educational Materials Return to CTSpedia Web Home BERD Educational Materials Research Ethics Education CPEG Educational Materials NIH Lecture ...
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Return to Course Materials Title: UCSF Simple Linear Regression Lead Author(s): David Glidden, PhD Simple Linear Regression Example HERS: Randomized ...
Return to Course Materials Disease Association Risk Ratio Risk Ratio Probability of disease, ate salad 54/70 0.77 Probability of disease, no salad 2/28 ...
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Return to Course Materials Title: UCSF Introduction: Cohort Study Design Human Subjects Studies Study design begins with the unit of observation. Either the observations ...
Return to Course Materials Cross Sectional Study Design Diagram It is easy to describe a cross sectional study as a sample of a population at one point in time, a ...
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Return to CTSpedia Web Home #ReturntoTop We welcome all users to our Educational Materials. In referencing our materials, PLEASE refer to the URL of the page where ...
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Effect Lead Author(s): Effect Measure True Effect
Effect Size Macros Longitudinal Data Nested Study Design
sampledata.htm: A look at the data structure. (To download the sampledata) EffectSize.sas: A macro that ESmacro would call. ESMacro.sas: Main macro. ...
sampledata.htm: A look at the data structure. (To download the dataset) EfectSizeMixed.sas: Main macro. SampleRun.sas: Example SAS program using the main ...
Example: Age Adjust Petrochemical Workers Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Person Time Rates for Cohort Analysis In Austin's (1983) study of petrochemical workers ...
Example: Backwards Strategy MRSA Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Kleinbaum provides an example of using backwards strategy to adjust for potential confounders ...
Example: Selection Bias Nuclear Bomb Testing Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Example of Selection Bias: Leukemia and Nuclear Bomb Testing History Smoky Atomic ...
Example: Selection Bias Breast Cancer Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Breast Cancer Study This is an example of selection bias in a cross sectional study. ...
Example: Selection Bias Pancreatic Cancer Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Bias in Analytic Study: Coffee and Pancreatic Cancer Study 1: Biased Overestimate ...
Example: Bias Study of Spermicide Use and Down Syndrome Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Analysis of Spermicide Use and Down Syndrome Data We are looking ...
Example: Selection Bias in Politics Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Examples of Selection Bias in Political Studies 1948 Presidential Election The 1948 preelection ...
Case Control Study Example Netherlands Cohort on Vitamin Intake Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Abstract from Zeegers (Zeegers' abstract) below is an example ...
Example of Case Control Study Design Kaiser Sigmoidoscopy Study Lead Editor(s) : Jeff Martin, MD Case Control Study Design Choices Kaiser Research Division ...
Case Control Study Example Rare Disease Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Rare Disease Assumption The rare disease assumption says that if the incidence ...
Example: Cohort Study Framingham Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Framingham Study Impact of Diabetes The Framingham Study reports on the impact of diabetes ...
Example: Counfounding Bias HIV and Needlestick Lead Editor(s): Jeff Martin, MD Treatment after HIV Needlestick Exposure An example of counding can be found ...
Example: Confounding Bias Night Lite Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Example of Confounding: Night Lite Confounding can be found in Quinn's study of myopia ...
Example: Cumulative Incidence Denominator GI Illness Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD GI Outbreak MMWR reported "Pleisomonas shigelloides and Salmonella serotype ...
Example: Cumulative Incidence SEER Program Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Long Term Survival NCI SEER Program In the following example from Brenner ...
Example of Differential Misclassification Bias Nurses Health Study Melanoma Risk Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Differential Misclassification of Exposure ...
Example of Differential Misclassification Bias Pregnancy and Congenital Malformations Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Differential Misclassification of Exposure ...
Example: Cumulative Incidence Survival Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Cumulative Incidence McDonald reports cumulative incidence at four 5 year time intervals ...
Example: Incidence Reporting What Is Missing? Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measures Loosely Called Incidence Number of Events (E) Count of the number ...
Examples of Incident Density Sampling Dynamic Primary Study Base Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Example 1: Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer The abstract ...
Example: Qualitative Interaction Pregnancy and Coffee Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Study of Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Delayed Conception ...
Example: Intermediate Variable CAD Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Is HDL a Confounder or an Intermediary? We are looking at the relationship between exercise ...
Example: Intermediate Variable HIV CCR5 Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD CCR5 Receptor on the CD4 Cells Taylor published findings on the human cellular receptor ...
Example: Selection Bias Loss to Follow Up AIDS Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Losses to follow up are a grave problem in AIDS studies. Progression to AIDS ...
Example: Lost to Follow up HCV and HIV Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Many times lost to follow up data is not presented. First Example from a Study with ...
Graphical Examples of Misclassification Bias Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD The effects of reduced sensitivity of the exposure measurement and/or reduced specificity ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Non Differential Exposure Cohort Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Figure Misclassification of Exposure Variable ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Non Differential Exposure Imperfect Sensitivity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measurement bias is affected by imperfect ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Non Differential Exposure Imperfect Specificity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measurement bias results from imperfect specificity ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Non Differential Misclassification of Outcome Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Misclassification of the outcome results in measurement ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Outcome Variable Cohort Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Misclassification bias of the outcome variable does not reduce ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Pertussis Vaccine 100% Specificity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Misclassfication Bias In a cohort study we have ...
Example of Misclassification Bias Imperfect Sensitivity and Specificity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measurement bias is affected by imperfect sensitivity ...
Example: Do Not Adjust Lung Cancer and Matches Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Crude and Adjusted Data Here is an example of what can happen when you adjust ...
Example: Person Time Incidence Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Study of Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Lipshultz 2003 Study presents: ...
Examples of Reporting or Ignoring Interactions Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD These are guidelines for reporting or ignoring interactions. First consideration ...
Example: Stratification Matches, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Reason for Stratification In the example below we are concerned about ...
Example: Incidence Time Varying Exposure Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Analysis of Changing Exposure and Disease Incidence Ray (2002) analyzed Medicaid ...
Empirical Rule ErinEsp 16 May 2010
BrianMendonca 14 Sep 2010 Case Study: Involving Endangered Species Jane Doe walks into a bio statistics drop in workshop with questions about her endangered species ...
Epidemiology Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants (causes) of disease e.g., cardiovascular ...
Error in Clinical Research Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Missing the Truth What are the ways of missing the truth (ie getting the wrong answer)? There are two ...
Error, Type I See Educational Materials for a discussion of Type I Error
Error, Type II See Educational Materials for a discussion of Type II Error
Estimation versus Hypothesis Testing Lead Author(s): George Howard, DrPH Inference ESTIMATION Statistics in Estimation Repeated Estimates Uncertainty in Estimation ...
Ethics Authorship Controversies Return to Home Page Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Ethics and Authorship Background Discussion This is not a valid criticism ...
Ethics in CTS Biostatistics PLEASE NOTE: Only EthicsBiostat topic heading changes will go out as email notifications to the BERD Ethical Practice Listserv. Ethics ...
Annotated Bibliography Return to CTSpdia Home Page INTRODUCTION This annotated bibliography is designed to offer biostatisticians, statisticians, epidemiologists ...
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Return to Research Ethics Educational Materials
Controversies in Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Return to Home Page Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Please see the following controversies: Ethics and Sample Size Controversies ...
Ethics Guidelines in CTS Biostatistics Return to Ethics in Biostatistics Please feel free to add a material to this table by clicking on the Edit button, Add Row, ...
Ethical Guidelines of Major Statistical Associations American Statisitcal Association: http://www.amstat.org/about/ethicalguidelines.cfm Royal Statistical Society ...
Return to Home Page Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Ethics and Sample Size Contributors to CTSpedia have differing opinions on how sample size influences whether a ...
Calendar of Events for Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Return to CTSpedia Web Home Talks and Events for Ethics in CTS Biostatistics Add Talk or Event If you wish to ...
Materials Related to Teaching Ethics in Biostatistics and Epidemiology Return to CTSpedia Home Page The Development of a Course for Graduate Students on Ethics in ...
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Factorial Design Factorial designs are used for experiments that test the effect of more than one treatment. This type of design permits an assessment of interactions ...
YinglinXia 06 Aug 2009 FDR.sas: False Discovery Rate Program ExampleRun.sas: Sample for runing the FDR macro FdrOutput.htm: Sample Output data ...
Fisher's Exact Test Fisher's exact test is a statistical significance test used in the analysis of tables where sample sizes are small. It is named after its inventor ...
Fleiss Kappa Fleiss' Kappa stastistic is a measure of the inter rater agreement. This statistic is an extension of Cohen's Kappa to situations when there are more ...
Flow Chart Choice of Graph Document
Follow up Time Lead Author(s): Laurel Beckett, PhD; Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Follow up Time Example of Follow up Time Among 250 total subjects, 100 died ...
Return to Safety Graphics Home Type of Graph: Forest Plot Last updated : Fabrice Bancken on October 7, 2011 (Work in progress) Type of data: Continuous summary ...
Return to CTSpedia Web Home Forking from Wikipedia PLEASE use the code below to appropriately cite forked Wikipedia material. Click on "Edit" and copy and paste the ...
Forum Biostatistics Join discussions of biostatistics here. Ask your questions here.
Making sure that the biostatistics forum is working. MaryBanach 09 May 2013
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Forum MuStat Join discussions of MuStat and Wisdom here. Ask your questions here.
Making sure that questions work on ustat MaryBanach 09 May 2013
Framingham Heart Study The Framingham Heart Study is a cardiovascular study based in Framingham, Massachusetts. The study began in 1948 with 5,209 adult subjects ...
G Power G Power is a free application that will run under Windows XP/Vista or Mac OS X 10.4. It uses both exact and approximate methods to calculate power. It will ...
Geocoding There are multiple options and many resources on the Internet for learning how to geocode; in this case, for assigning an exact location to study participants ...
Geocoding: What is it and why is it necessary? This article is derived from materials created by Dr. David Rehkopf. Geocoding involves assigning an exact location ...
Geometric Mean The geometric mean is often used to describe the center of a set of numbers that are right skewed, such as the C reactive protein values of participants ...
Glossary of Graphics Information The following is a list of terms used in the graphing of data. A, B. C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, ...
Gold Standard Lead Editor(s): Jeff Martin, MD Gold Standard Individual measurements are the gold standard. Gold Standard in Confounding When considering ...
Avoiding Insufficient or Excessive Precision How many decimals to give is a common practical issue in reporting the results of statistical analyses in publications ...
CTSpedia Usage CTSpedia Web Statistics Google Analytics Usage Reports April 2012 April 2012 Usage Report March 2012 March 2012 Usage Report February 2012 ...
Graphics Presentation Archive See Table of Contents for the Graphics Presentation Archive DIA 2014 Presentations Seeing Is Believing! Good Graphic Design Principles ...
Group Randomized Study A group randomized study is a randomized trial in which the intervention is assigned to a group of people but the outcome is assessed ...
BERD Unit Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Data AnalysisJon Gelfond, Erin Fox, Chris Louden, Colleen Azen, Alex Capron, and Donna Spruijt Metz.Preamble Biostatistics ...
Halo effect The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence ...
Welcome to the CTSpedia Help Center Return to CTSpedia Web Home Our public space is open to all interested parties. We would prefer if you hyperlinked to our materials ...
Help for Clinical Researchers Return to CTSpedia Web Home Articles or Content of Interest Statistical Computing and Graphics Biostatistics and ...
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Need Help Selecting a Graphic? Return to Statistical Graphics Home Click here to open Flow Chart with direct links Links: Cumulative Distribution NEED: Profile ...
Type of Graph: Last updated by on Type of data: Type of analysis: Description and purpose: Examples: Basic Examples Attached Complementary Graphs ...
Hosmer Lemeshow Test (H L Test) Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD This provides a p value for the composite null hypothesis that a logistic regression model ...
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a measure of the association of experimental units within groups. There are many ...
Use of Incidence Rate Compare Disease Incidence in a Cohort with Population Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Advantage of Using Incidence Rate There are a ...
Compare Incidence from Time Varying Exposure Advantage of Using Incident Rates There are a number of advantages to using incident rates. One of them is to look at ...
Use of Incidence Rate Calculate from Population Based Registries Advantage of Using Incidence Rate There are a number of advantages of rates. One is the ability ...
Independent Samples Two samples are said to be independent when the data points in one sample are unrelated to the data points in the second sample. For example suppose ...
Quantitative: 2 Arm: Independent Samples Another important factor for determining sample size is the number of times Jill plans on measuring the size of the tumor ...
Inference Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD The goal of any study is make an accurate (true) inference or to find the truth about the source. There are two types ...
Infinite Estimates Lead Author: Peter Bacchetti, PhD Some regression methods, notably logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, can produce degenerate ...
Informatician Return to Residency Project Year One Guide Informaticians can be from a variety of specialties. You will be working with Clinical Research Informatics ...
Inspiring Graphics Table of Visualizations Gallery from Protovis
Contribute to Stat Tools Return to Statistical Tools Home Page #ReturnTop PLEASE note you must be a registered on CTSpedia to contribute a statistical tool. Step ...
Instructions for Adverse Events Clinical Questions Form You will note that many fields are the same on the Individual Graphics Form, the ECG Vitals Graphics Form, ...
Instructions for Completing ECG Vitals Safety Graphics Form You will note that many fields are the same on the Individual Graphics Form, the LFT Safety Graphics Form ...
Instructions for Completing Labs Liver Safety Graphics Form You will note that many fields are the same on the Individual Graphics Form, the ECG Vitals Graphics ...
Instructions for Completing Residency Project Form Return to Residency Project Assistance #ReturnTop Step 1 Completing Top of Summary Residency Project Form To ...
Integrated Data Repository An integrated data repository (IDR) containing aggregations of clinical, biomedical, economic, administrative, and public health data ...
Intention to Treat Analysis See Educational Materials for Intent to Treat Analysis
Interaction An interaction between two treatments occurs when the effect of one treatment changes in the presence of another treatment.
Interactions versus Confounding Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Confounding vs Interaction How do confounding and interaction differ? Confounding : An extraneous ...
Multiplicative Interaction Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Multiplicative Interaction When there is interaction in terms of the ratio measure ...
Additive Interaction Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Additive Interaction When there is interaction in terms of the difference measure of association ...
Graphical Approach to Interaction Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Many texts use a graphical approach to depict interaction. To determine interactions we graphically ...
Interpretation of Coefficients Directions Please enable javascript with popups to use this page. This page will help you write an interpretation of an estimate ...
Interval Censored Survival Analysis Primary Author: JohnKornak Description Survival analysis methods play an important role in the statistical analysis of medical ...
NIH Mentored Career Development Awards (K Series) Part 1 Thomas Mitchell, MPH Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics University of California San Francisco ...
Intra Class Correlation (ICC) In planning group randomized studies, we typically assume that the measurements between any pair of people in the same group have the ...
NIH Mentored Career Development Awards (K Series) Part 2 Thomas Mitchell, MPH Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics University of California San Francisco ...
NIH Mentored Career Development Awards (K Series) Part 3 Thomas Mitchell, MPH Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics University of California San Francisco Section ...
Writing the Environment and Institutional Commitment to Candidate Section Section 3: Environment and Institutional Commitment to Candidate Evaluation criteria ...
Writing the Research Plan Section: Specific Aims Writing a competitive mentored K award grant application 4 main sections of the grant application: ...
Writing the Research Plan Section: Preliminary Studies Thomas Mitchell, MPH Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics University of California San Francisco Research ...
Writing the Research Plan Section: Background and Significance Background and Significance In writing this section, keep in mind that you are writing for ...
Writing the Research Plan Section: Research Design and Methods Research Design and Methods Length: 10 pages (or approximately one half the length of the research ...
Iris' Corner Thank You Iris Adding Your Story Please add your personal comment or story about how Iris Obrams has enhanced the BERD KFC work over the years to the ...
Before you receive the data set, be sure you will have room for it either on your personal computer or on a server at your institution. National databases can grow ...
Jackknife Jackknifing, which is similar to bootstrapping, is used in statistical inferencing to estimate the bias and standard error in a statistic, when a random ...
Career Development Awards, K Series Lead Author: Tom Mitchell Types of Mentored Career Development Awards There are a number of different mentored K awards that ...
Kaplan Meier Method for Calculating Cumulative Incidence Calculating Cumulative Incidence with the Kaplan Meier Method To calculate cumulative incidence we must take ...
Kappa.u This R function is to calculate kappa statistics based on U statistics. It compares two raters' ratings within a longitudinal data setting. Reference: Ma ...
Kappa statistics calculated based on U Statistics kappa.u.txt: R Function calcualtes Kappa statistics based on U Statistics KappaUOutput.txt: The Output ...
Explaining Low Kappa Value FORUM QUESTION: BarbaraGrimes 05 Feb 2010 15:44 I have a set of data where 3 reviewers classified 20 subjects. The client is interested ...
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LBTESTCD Code Value Code Text ALB ALBUMIN ALP ALKALINE PHOSHATASE ALT ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE AMYLASE AMYLASE ANISO ANISOCYTOSIS APTT ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN ...
LBTYPE Code ValueCode Text CHEM Blood Chemistry HEM Hematology OTHER Other Lab Data URIN Urinalysis Return to ADLBC
LMH Code ValueCode Text L Low N Normal H High N/A Return to ADLBC
LSM Plot Mixed Macro Example Lead Author(s): Yinglin Xia, PhD Date Borrower Revision Number Comments Automatic Date Field FirstLast Rev 1
YinglinXia 08 Mar 2010 LSMPlotGEE.sas: Least squares mean plot for GEE models ExampleRun.sas: An example for using LSMPlotGEE macro lsmplotgee.sas7bdat ...
Changes LSM Plot YinglinXia 08 Mar 2010 LSMPlotMIXEDOriginal.sas: Least squares mean plot for MIXED models ExampleRun.sas: An example for using LSMPlotMIXEDOriginal ...
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Least Squares See Educational Materials for information on Least Squares
Length Bias in Flu Symptom Duration Measurements: ErikGregory 20 Jul 2010 #ReturntoTop Dr. Taylor is doing a study to determine the mean duration of flu symptoms ...
Length Bias Lead Author(s): Erik Gregory Definition of Length Bias Length bias refers to our tendency to select relatively long intervals of time when doing ...
Likelihood The likelihood is defined as the probability of observing a given set of data, assuming a particular model of the process that generated them. It is often ...
Likelihood Ratio Test This calculates a P value for a term in a regression model based on how much the likelihood worsens when the term is removed from the model ...
Limitations of Omnibus Test Need Author Lead Author(s): Definition of Limitations of Omnibus Test
Return to Safety Graphics Home Table of Contents Type of Graph: Line Plot Last updated by Main.FabriceBancken on August 26, 2011 Type of Data: Categorical ...
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Linear Regression Lead Author(s): Erin Dienes Definition of Linear Regression Regression analysis is a statistical methodology that utilizes the relationship between ...
Linear Splines Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD A linear spline is used in regression models to allow a predictor to have a non linear effect on the outcome. This ...
Linearity Assumption Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD In regression models, numeric predictors are assumed to have a linear association with the outcome. In mathematical ...
Useful Links List of useful links to resources, local and general, for clinical and translational research. Web Links for Consultation and Collaboration Added ...
R Functions with Outputs Return to Statistical Tools Home Return to Statistical Tools Home
Listing of SAS Macros with Sample Outputs Return to Statistical Tools Home Return to Statistical Tools Home
Adverse Events Clinical Questions Addressed Return to Stat Graph Home 1. Which AEs are elevated in treatment vs. control? Which AE could be a safety signal? EG ...
ECG Clinical Questions Return to Safety Graphics Home 1. What are the longitudinal trends in the data? 2. Are there outlier individuals that have large changes ...
Labs and Liver Toxicity Clinical Questions Return to Safety Graphics Home Baseline and Trending over Time 1. What are the changes and percent changes from baseline ...
2 log likelihood ( 2 log L) Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD This is a measure of how well the fitted model matches the observed values of the outcome or dependent ...
Logistic Macro Output Checklist 1 Are all predictors that you expected in the models? 1 Does each predictor have the categories that you expected? Are the reference ...
Logarithmic Transformation Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD Statistical models are sometimes more meaningful and accurate if outcome or predictor variables ...
BarbaraGrimes 23 Jun 2009
PeterBacchetti 22 Oct 2009 Outcome for Logistic Regression Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD For logistic regression, the outcome variable is generally a dichotomous ...
BarbaraGrimes 23 Jun 2009
Logistic Regression Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Logistic Regression Logistic regression is the method of multivariable analysis used most often ...
BarbaraGrimes 02 Jun 2009 LogisticRegressionMacro The main macro LogisticPrint.sas: For printing data sets created by multiple calls of the Logistic macro.logisticHtml ...
logisticHtml1.sas: For printing data sets created by multiple calls of the Logistic macro. logisticHtml.sas: Creates hyperlinked and highlighted output file. ...
Longitudinal Cohort Studies Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same ...
Lost to Follow up Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Main Threat to Validity in a Cohort Study "What is the effect of subjects who are lost to follow up on the ...
YinglinXia 13 Mar 2012 "Rochester MIXED MSEM Main Macro" MIXED MSEM.sas: Main macro to model mediation analysis with two level nested data MIXED MSEM SASExampleCode ...
YinglinXia 14 Mar 2012 "ICC calculatation and testing" MIXED TEST ICC.sas: Main SAS macro for calculating and testing ICC MIXED TEST ICCExampleCode.sas: ...
RuiChen 24 Aug 2010
Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Attributes Macro Name text 25 Description textarea 80x10 Macro Parameters ...
LSM Plot Mixed Macro Lead Author(s): Yinglin Xia, PhD Date Borrower Revision Number Comments Automatic Date Field FirstLast Rev 1
nop CTSpedia Web Utilities advanced search WebTopicList all topics in alphabetical order WebChanges recent topic changes in this web WebNotify ...
Mann Whitney Test See Educational Materials Stata and Statistical Tools R Function
Year One Margo Margo is a resident in the Cardiology department and she has begun working on her research project. She met with her mentor to discuss possible questions ...
Year Three Margo Margo has previously met with a statistician and discussed the hypotheses on which a statistical analysis of the data can realistically form conclusions ...
Year Two Margo Margo's IRB proposal has been approved and the next step is for her to acquire the data. With the aid of an informatician, Margo will obtain the ...
Markov Processes See Educational Materials Markov Transitions
KimberlyKaukeinen 04 Jun 2010 ExampleRun.sas: Example Run for macro matched sample matched sample.sas: Match 2 groups by X number of variables.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation This is a general strategy for estimating the parameters of a statistical model of the process that generated a set of data. The parameter ...
Maximum Likelihood Estimate See SAS macro code and Educational Materials Stata
Measurement Scale See Educational Materials Stata
Measure of Central Tendency The central tendency of a set of measurements is the tendency of the data to cluster/center around certain numerical values. Some examples ...
Medpedia http://www.medpedia.com The Medpedia Project is a long term, worldwide project to evolve a new model for sharing and advancing knowledge about health, medicine ...
Median Reporting FORUM QUESTION: BarbaraGrimes 06 Jul 2009 09:53 When the median of a measurement is reported in a manuscript, should the min,max or the interquartile ...
Meta Analysis Lead Author(s): Clay Johnston, MD, PhD The clinical literature is overwhelming. On any topic important to clinical decision making, there are numerous ...
Minimal Risk According to the Common Rule, Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not ...
Misclassification Specimen Collection Problems Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Checklist for proper specimen procedures: Types of Specimen Collection Problems ...
Misclassification Specimen Testing Problems Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Checklist for specimen testing: Types of Specimen Testing Problems Inherent Limits ...
Misclassification Data Management Problems ADD MORE Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Checklist for data management: Types of Data Management Problems Coding ...
Misclassification Design or Analytic Problems ADD MORE Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Checklist for study design preparation: Types of Analytic Problems ...
Misclassification Questionnaire Problems Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Checklist for questionnaire preparations: Types of Questionnaire Problems Inaccurate ...
Missing Data FORUM QUESTION: Julia St George 22 May 2009 11:44 I have done a survey of interns in which each person was asked 12 questions, before and after a ...
A Mission Statement for CTSpedia.org CTSpedia was created as a national effort to collect wisdom, tools, educational materials, and other items useful for clinical ...
BERD Education working group (Goals) This working group was formed in spring 2010, and is a subgroup of the BERD Online Resources Task Force. Our focus is on creating ...
Monte Carlo Simulation See directions for Monte Carlo simulation in Stata
How many mice do I need? Lead Author: Erin Esp Jill is a researcher in comparative pathology. She is currently planning an experiment to measure the efficacy ...
Multicollinearity See Educational Materials: Multicollinearity Stata
Multiple Comparison Techniques See MCW Video on Multiple Comparison Techniques
Multiple Predictor Linear Model Return to Course Materials Lead Author(s) : David Glidden, PhD Multiple predictor linear regression Models dependence of the ...
Multivariate Analysis Needs Author
Multiplicative Model See Educational Materials Stata and Multiplicative Model
Overview In 2006, the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) was established at UCSF to aid researches in their work. From this, the Academic Research ...
NHANES The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children ...
Lecture Series Science of Small Clinical Trials To access these lectures, follow these steps: 1) Go to http://videocast.nih.gov/ 2) Select Past Events from the ...
The National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ The National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland ...
Need Help Form Template Return to CTSpedia Web Home Return to List of Projects that Need Assistance If you can help with this project, please click here.
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message CTSpedia Area radio 3 Statitistical Tools, Statistical Graphics, Datasets, Interactive Tools, BERD ...
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Negative Confounding Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Negative Confounding When the measure of association has gotten larger after accounting for ...
Return to CTSpedia Web Home Nested Case Control Study This article is from Wikipedia; the original article is Nested case control study . The list of authors can ...
Macro function NextWord returns the first word from a string, and removes the first word from the list. The macro parameter is: string a string of words. example ...
Normal Distribution Lead Author(s): Erin Dienes The Normal distribution (also known as the Gaussian distribution or a bell curve ) is a type of pattern that ...
Notification Test This is a topic that I created for the sole purpose of testing the notification system. I have saved this topic in the CTSpedia web so I should ...
Null Hypothesis Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD The null hypothesis says that neither the exposure, the effects of treatment, or the resulting disease differed ...
PeterBacchetti 21 Jun 2012 Numeric Variable This is a variable that is measured as a number on a quantitative scale, such as weight in kilograms or age in years. ...
Comments on two possible objections My experience with peer reviews of previous related papers 1, 2 , as well as published 3 and private correspondence about them ...
Odds RatioThis is a measure of the association between a predictor (or independent) variable and a yes or no (binary) outcome (or dependent) variable. A value ...
Odds Ratio Expressions FORUM QUESTION: Julia St George 27 May 2009 11:09 I ran a logistic regression model and got an estimated odds ratio showing that when ...
Odds Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Odds Ratio Four Probabilities Odds are already the ratio of two probabilities, so the odds ratio involves four ...
Odds Ratio versus Risk Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Comparing OR and Risk Ratio OR Farther from 1 The schematic below illustrates the point that, unless ...
Odds and Probability Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Odds Probability of an Event Odds are most simply calculated as the number of events divided by the number ...
Offering Assistance Return to CTSpedia Web Home Listings for Offering Assistance Return to CTSpedia Web Home
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External Links to Online Calculators Here's a quick list of available online statistical calculators by site. URL Notes QuesGen Sample size, confidence ...
BERD Online Journal Club Return to CTSpedia Web Home Online Journal Club Meetings Meeting 1: Ethics in Statistical Practice (May 24, 2012) Meeting 2: P Values ...
Return to Online Journal Club Discussion YouTube Video: False Discovery Discussion (PLEASE NOTE: On the bottom of this page, you will find the topic for discussion ...
Return to Online Journal Club Discussion See YouTube video Verification of Assumptions Online Discussion (PLEASE NOTE: On the bottom of this page, you will find ...
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Image text 25 Title text 25 Graph Subgroup radio 4 General Principles ...
I Have An Outlier! Lead Author(s): Erin Dienes James is a biologist who is currently researching beluga whales. Currently he is interested in the relationship between ...
Outcome or Dependent Variable Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Outcome or Dependent Variable These terms refer to the variable that is to be predicted ...
Outcomes See Also Outcome Variables
LSM Plot Mixed Macro Output Example HTML Lead Author(s): Yinglin Xia, PhD Date Borrower Revision Number Comments Automatic Date Field FirstLast ...
LSM Plot Mixed Macro Output Example Image Lead Author(s): Yinglin Xia, PhD Date Borrower Revision Number Comments Automatic Date Field FirstLast ...
Overdispersion See Logistic Regression checklist for overdispersion and tools for checking dispersion.
PRES Code Value Code Text 1 Present Absent Return to ADAE
PROMIS The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System ( PROMIS) is an NIH Roadmap (RM) funded initiative. The original FOA, "Dynamic Assessment of Patient ...
Paired Samples Two samples are said to be paired when each data point of the first sample is matched and is related to a unique data point of the second sample. For ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Paired Samples Jill is planning to take pairs of mice from several litters. One of the mice will receive the treatment while the other mouse ...
Parametric Test Duke Online Course compares parametric versus non parametric tests
Parent Child Topics Sas Tools Treeview Parent Child Topics Contributors SAS Tools
Parent Child Topics on CTSpedia Parent Child Research Topics CTSpedia Web Parent Child Articles CTSpedia Web Parent Child Statistical Tools CTSpedia Web ...
Partial Least Squares (PLS) Lead Author(s): Danh Nguyen, PhD Partial least squares can be viewed as a dimension reduction method that reduces the dimension of the ...
Copy and Paste a URL Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD If you wish to use a file posted at CTSpedia within a SAS program, you can copy and paste its URL using ...
Year One Paul Paul is a resident in Neurosurgery and he has begun working on his research project. He met with his mentor to discuss possible questions that their ...
Year Three Paul Paul has previously met with a statistician and discussed the hypotheses on which a statistical analysis of the data can realistically form conclusions ...
Year Two Paul Paul's IRB proposal has been approved and the next step is for him to acquire the data. With the aid of an informatician, Paul will obtain the data ...
Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, often called Pearson's r, is a measure of the linear dependence ...
Overall Percent Agreement A measure of agreement between raters. To calculate the overall percent agreement we take the total number of times in which the raters agree ...
Return to Safety Graphics Home Why Not to Use Pie Charts for Communicating Results By Mark K Jones, Amadeus Software Ltd (formerly GlaxoSmithKline) and Susan ...
Pilot Study A pilot study is a small scale preliminary study conducted before the main research in order to check the feasibility of the research, improve the design ...
Placebo, Placebo Effect Definition of a Placebo Definition of Placebo Effect MaryB 27 Jan 2009
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Attributes Contributor text 100 Mark Pletcher, MD, MPH CTSA Institution text 100 ...
(Extended) Box Plot
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Polynomial Model Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD A polynomial model is used in regression models to allow a predictor to have a non linear effect on the outcome ...
Population Attributable Risk See discussion of population attributable risk in Study Design Educational Materials
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Study Precision Good Precision Good Validity Consider that at the center of the target is the truth and that each shot at the target represents a study you conduct ...
Predictive Value See discussion of predictive value in Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Educational Material and in Principles of Hypothesis Testing
Predictor or Exposure Variable Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD This variable is also referred to as the exposure, the explanatory variable, or the independent ...
Preparing your data set can involve many steps and lots of research on how the data set is organized. You will need to know the names of your variables, how they are ...
BERD Presentations Add Presentation If you wish to contribute a presentation: Click on the Add Presentation button on the bottom of the page Fill out the ...
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Prevalence Ratio in Cross Sectional Study Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Prevalence Ratio The ratio of the proportion of the persons with disease ...
DRAFT Ethical Peer Reviewing INITIAL DRAFT by Jonathan Shuster and Robert OsterEDITS BY WORKING GROUP MEMBERS ARE WELCOME AND ENCOURAGED (To edit this page: Click ...
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Profile Likelihood Confidence Intervals The profile likelihood method determines lower and upper confidence bounds for a model parameter, such as a fitted regression ...
PC Size PC Size is a free DOS application that will run under Windows. It uses exact and approximate methods to calculate power. It will deal with samplesize/power ...
R Language R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was ...
Dealing with Selection Bias in Observational Studies This site is currently under construction. Karen attended the Drop In Biostatistics Worskshop seeking some advice ...
You should consider any safety and privacy concerns you may have as well as those mandated by your institution or the institution releasing the data set. Many institutions ...
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DanielRosenblum 29 Aug 2011 Subgroup #1 Publications References
Common Biostatistical Problems and the Best Practices that Prevent Them This is based on Peter Bacchetti's lecture on "Common Biostatistical Problems and the Best ...
Quadratic P value Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD This is a P value for the hypothesis that a numeric predictor has a linear effect. When P 0.05, this is ...
Qualitative : 2 Arm Jill wants to test the efficacy of a treatment versus a control group. Thus she wants to use a 2 arm design. So far, we know that Jill is going ...
Qualitative : 2 Arm : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking random samples from her target population of mice. Then she is measuring ...
Qualitative : 2 Arm : Repeated Measures Suppose instead of disease prevention, Jill was interested in a different experiment. Jill is interested in whether or not ...
Qualitative : Two Arm : Single Measurement : Calculator There are several sample size calculators available on the web. The following is one such calculator: http ...
Qualitative : 2 Arm : Single Measurement : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician. This ...
Qualitative : 2 Arm : Single Measurement : Formula The sample size formula for a binary response variable that is measured once using a two arm design is provided ...
Qualitative : 3 Arm Jill wants to tests the efficacy of two different treatments versus a control group. Thus she wants to use a 3 arm design. So far, we know that ...
Qualitative : 3 Arm : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking independent random samples from her target population of mice. Then she ...
Qualitative : 3 Arm : Repeated Measures Suppose instead of disease prevention, Jill was interested in a different experiment. Jill is interested in whether or not ...
Qualitative Qualitative variables, often called categorical variables, are measurements that are classified into one of a group of categories. For example blood type ...
Qualitative : Factorial Jill wants to test the efficacy of two treatments taken separately and also taken together. She will need to use a factorial design. So far ...
Qualitative In Jill's study, she is interested in testing the efficacy of a preventive treatment. Thus her response variable is whether or not the mouse gets the ...
Qualitative : Factorial : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking independent random samples from her target population of mice. One ...
Qualitative : Factorial : Repeated Measures Suppose instead of disease prevention, Jill was interested in a different experiment. Jill is interested in whether or ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm Jill is interested in testing the efficacy of a treatment versus a placebo. Thus she wants to use a 2 Arm Design. So far, we know that Jill is ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Ind. Samples : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking independent random samples from her target population ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Repeated Measures Jill is interested in the growth rate of the tumors. Thus she is planning to measure the tumor size of each mouse several ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Paired Samples : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician. This provides ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Paired Samples : Formula The sample size formula for a quantitative response variable that is measured once, using a 2 arm paired design is ...
Quantitative : Two Arm : Ind. Samples : Single Meas.: Calculator There are several sample size calculators available on the web. The following is one such calculator ...
Quant. : Two Arm : Ind. Samples : Single Measurement : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician ...
Quantitative : 2 Arm : Ind. Samples : Single Measurement : Formula The sample size formula for a quantitative response variable that is measured once, using a 2 arm ...
Quantitative : 3 Arm Jill wants to test the efficacy of two treatments against a contol group. Hence she wants to use a 3 Arm Design. So far, we know that Jill is ...
Quantitative : 3 Arm : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking independent random samples from her target population of mice. Then ...
Quantitative : 3 Arm : Repeated Measures Jill is interested in the growth rate of the tumors. Thus she is planning to measure the tumor size of each mouse several ...
Quantitative : 3 Arm : Single Measurement : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician. This ...
Quantitative : 3 Arm : Single Measurement : Calculator There are several sample size calculators available on the web. The following is one such calculator: http ...
Quantitative Quantitative variables, often called numerical variables, are measurements that are recorded on a naturally occurring numerical scale. Some examples ...
Quantitative : Factorial Jill wants to test the efficacy of two treatments taken separately and also taken together. She will need to use a factorial design. So far ...
Quantitative In Jill's study, she is interested in testing the efficacy of the treatment on reducing tumor size. That is, her response variable is tumor size which ...
Quantitative : Factorial : Calculator There are several sample size calculators available on the web. The following is one such calculator: http://math.yorku.ca/SCS ...
Quantitative : Factorial : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician. This provides some information ...
Quantitative : Factorial : Single Measurement Let's summarize what we know so far. Jill is taking independent random samples from her target population of mice. Then ...
Quantitative : Factorial : Repeated Measures Jill is interested in the growth rate of the tumors. Thus she is planning to measure the tumor size of each mouse several ...
Ques Gen Ques Gen is a web based data management system uniquely developed for academic and commercial research studies and clinical trials. The data capture required ...
A simple example of a statistical analysis using R2wd The document is an R script. Special commands provided in the R2wd package push output into a Word file. library ...
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REDCap http://www.project redcap.org/ The REDCap Consortium is comprised of 40 active institutional partners from CTSA, GCRC, RCMI and other institutions, and it ...
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R/S PLUS Packages/Scripts/Functions 1 muStat package for multivariate ordinal data (download from CRAN, CSAN Knut M. Wittkowski, The Rockefeller University, ...
Random Error Chance (Reproducibility) Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Random Error In distinction to systematic error or bias, random error occurs ...
Randomized Trial A Type of Cohort Study Lead Editor(s): Jeff Martin, MD Randomized Trial Randomized trial is a cohort design with exposure assigned rather ...
Rate and Cumulative Incidence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Rate Reserved for Measuring Incidence Rate should be reserved for measuring incidence . ...
Measure of Association Rate Ratio Definition of Rate In a cohort study: Rate is based on events per person time incidence rate We have limited the use of ...
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Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is used to make an assessment of the overall value of a new diagnostic test ...
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References for Residency Projects Add New Reference References Residency Education References Medical Records Review References Clinical Research Data ...
Relational Databases This presentation by Dr. Michael Kohn of UCSF gives a great introduction to the topic, and offers the following guidelines for data management ...
Relative RiskAlso called the Risk Ratio.This is a measure of the association between a predictor (or independent) variable and a yes or no (binary) outcome (or dependent ...
No, my organization does not promote use of statistical graphics in clinical development.
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Quarterly Reports and Raw Data for Reports Return to CTSpedia Web Home #ReturnTop Final Report: 2011 12 Supplement Supplement 2011 12 Final Report Final Report ...
PeterBacchetti 16 Jun 2012 In a study of how long participants survive or how long they go without experiencing a particular event of interest, fully describing how ...
Reporting Power Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD Power calculations are widely recognized to be irrelevant in the interpretation of completed studies, because ...
Reproducible Research Definitions Standards Papers Methodology Templates Working Group What Went Wrong Links to Other Sites http://groups.google.com ...
Reproducible Research Working Group Members Michele Dunn, NCI Jim Ware, Harvard John Kloke, Pittsburgh Frank Harrell, Vanderbilt, chair Ron ...
Reproducible Research Methodology Return to CTSpedia Web Home Introduction: The Scientific Method Measurement Experimental and Study Design Statistical Analysis ...
Reproducible Research Papers Nolan, Peng, Lang:Enhanced Dynamic Documents for Reproducible Research Amstat News article by Baggerly and Berry Statistical ...
Reproducible Research Standards and Definitions An article about computational science in a scientific publication is not the scholarship itself, it is merely advertising ...
Templates for Reproducible Research Utah: Templates Analysis Plan and Report Utah: 2015 Updated Template Analysis Plan Template Utah: 2015 Template Statistical ...
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Rescaled Predictors In regression models with a numeric predictor, the estimated effect is that associated with a 1 unit increase in the predictor. In some cases, ...
Browse Research Topics A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ # All registrant may edit these materials. Red titles need authors. A The A List of Potential ...
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Residency Project Examples The following is a tentative guide for conducting a residency research project using electronic health records (EHR), formerly called electronic ...
Residency Project Year One In the first year of your research project you will want to formalize your question of interest, determine the feasibility of your study ...
Example of Year Three of Residency Project In the third year of your research project you should conduct the statistical analysis, discuss with your mentor which ...
Example of Year Two of Residency Project In the second year of your research project you should acquire and organize the data. Typically clinical researchers retrieve ...
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Guidelines for Residency Projects What is a Residency Project? The ACGME requires that all residents in US Medical Schools complete a scholarly project during residency ...
Residency Projects #ReturntoTop Residency Projects Return to Top Search Residency Projects by Data Type Survey Data MedicalRecords ElectronicMedicalRecord Registry ...
Residency Programs Residency Project Guidelines If you would like to add project guidelines, References for Residency Projects See Past Residency Projects UC ...
Residency Project Year One Guide Return to Residency Project Guidelines During the first year of your residency project, you will be designing and preparing your ...
Residency Project Year Three Guide Return to Residency Project Guidelines Manuscript Produce a manuscript working with statistician on techniques and variables. ...
Residency Project Year Two Guide Return to Residency Project Guidelines Some of the steps in Collecting Data are a review from Year 1. Collecting Data You will collect ...
Residuals Not Normally Distributed FORUM QUESTION: ErinMadden1 03 Sep 2010 16:20 For a linear regression where the residuals are not normally distributed (and ...
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Risk Factor A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. Risk factors are correlational and not necessarily causal, because ...
Prevalence of Risk Factor Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Prevalence of Risk Factor The prevalence of a risk factor is also important from a public ...
Risk Ratio versus Rate Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD RR Relative risk or RR is very common in the literature, but may represent: a risk ratio, ...
Measure of Assocation Risk Ratio Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Risk In a cohort study: Risk is based on proportion of persons with disease ...
SAS Community http://www.sascommunity.org/ sasCommunity.org is a collaborative online SAS Community for SAS Users worldwide and was created by the SAS Global ...
A simple example of a statistical analysis using SASweave The document is essentially written in LaTeX with SAS code inserted along the way in a special environment ...
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FDA/Industry/Academia Safety Graphic Working Group Charter Problem Statement Most presentations on safety data convey information in tabular form. In general, tables ...
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Case Control Design Sampling at Baseline Special type of case control study: Case cohort design Lead Editor(s): Jeff Martin, MD Summary of Case Control Sampling ...
SAMPLE CODE BOOK Below is a sample of a typical code book. Sample Data Set Code Book: Breast Cancer in Elderly Women Draft Codebook August 26, 2003 Codebook prepared ...
Case Control Design Sampling Controls at Follow up Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Summary of Case Control Sampling Design Sampling Measure of ...
Case Control Design Incidence Density Sampling CUT Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Summary of Case Control Sampling DesignSamplingMeasure of Association ...
Case Control Design Incident Density Sampling Dynamic Primary Study Base Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Case Control Incidence Density Sampling in a Dynamic ...
Current Sample Size Conventions: Flaws, Harms, and Alternatives This is a CTSpedia version of an open access article originally published as: Bacchetti P. Current ...
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Sampling ANCHORS Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Sampling Sampling is the process by which individuals belonging to a larger target population ...
SAS Macros These are components that can be used within your own SAS programs. Headings at the top of each file describe how to call or use them, and examples are ...
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Return to Safety Graphics Home Scatterplots and Bivariate Density Plots Last updated by Richard Forshee on April 14, 2011 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in ...
Search for Graphics Return to Safety Graphics Home #ReturnTop Class Graphs General Principle Graphics Search for graphs in forms by looking up the name of the graph ...
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1168 residents in internal medicine and neurology and 78 attending physicians in neurology at Barnes Jewish Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Massachusetts ...
Under Construction Significance Testing as Perverse Probabilistic ReasoningThis is a CTSpedia version of an open access article originally published as:Westover MB ...
Use of Significant Alone in Publications Do not use the word significant alone in scientific publications that include statistical analysis. This term is ambiguous ...
Skewed Variable A skewed variable has a distribution where there are a few observations that are much larger (right skewed) or smaller (left skewed) than the others ...
Small Samples: Main.ErikGregory 27 Jul 2010 #ReturntoTop Suppose you are planning (or maybe have already completed) a study to determine the effectiveness of some ...
Society for Clinical Trials http://www.sctweb.org/ An international professional organization dedicated to the theory and practice of clinical trials. Purpose The ...
Computer Assisted Interviewing Software Lead Editor(s) : NicolasSheon The two main reasons for using a computer to administer a survey are efficiency (no need to ...
Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient is a nonparametric procedure used to make inferences about the association between ...
Standardized Mortality Ratio Standardized Mortality Ratio In the example of petrochemical workers: If U.S. death rates for age sex race calendar period groups ...
Stand Alone Data Entry KnutWittkowski 26 Jun 2009 08:31 Michael, EpiInfo is using MS Access for both the data and the meta data. Do you have any suggestion how ...
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Welcome to the Clinical Trials Safety Graphics Home Page Graphs that answer common clinical trial safety questions Recommendations from the FDA/Industry/Academia ...
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Name Type Size Values Your Organization radio 5 Industry, FDA, Academia FDA: Group text 25 1. Does your organization promote ...
P values Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD These are usually interpreted as showing the strength of evidence against the possibility that there is truly no ...
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Stata Commands Here are several sites that have Stata commands you may find useful (by no means an exhaustive list): University of Chicago, Department of Statistics ...
Stata Do Files Stata Do Files: Kaplan Meier
Stata Do Files Kaplan Meier Analysis Using Stata Need a data set with one observation per person. Each person either experiences event or is censored. Need a variable ...
Statistical Computing and Graphics Concepts to Master 1 Difference between a functional language with live access to data and a procedural or macro language ...
Statistical Test Needed FORUM QUESTION: Julia St George 22 May 2009 12:12 I found that 0 of 63 patients responded to an alternative therapy, but when I submitted ...
Lisiting of All Statistical Tools on CTSpedia Return to CTSpedia Web Home Return to Statistical Tools Home Listing of All Statistical Tools #OriginalWork Original ...
ArthurWatts 09 Sep 2010
Stratification Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Stratification Forming separate strata or groups during study analysis or during study design. ...
Study Analysis: 2 x 2 Table or Chi square Test Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measuring Association The simplest way to measure the association is to have a ...
Adjustment The method of modifying observations to account for external factors that may distort or skew associations in observations. Adjusted Measure of Association ...
Backwards Strategy Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Backwards Strategy for Potential Confounders In the Backwards Strategy we initially evaluate all potential ...
Bias Variance Tradeoff Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Bias Variance Tradeoff What is a meaningful difference between the crude and adjusted measure of ...
Forwards Strategy Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Forwards Strategy for Potential Confounders In contrast to the backwards strategy for potential condunders ...
Inappropriate Statistical Testing for Confounding Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Examining a Known Confounder Testing for statistically significant differences ...
Life Tables Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Life Tables Life tables, as the name implies, were first constructed to look at the cumulative survival ...
Summary Estimators: Mantel Haenszel Method Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD This is one method for calculating summary adjusted estimators when making adjustments ...
Model Selection MaryB 21 Apr 2009
Adjustment for Multiple Confounders Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Stratification of Multiple Confounders with More Than Two Levels Stratification can also ...
Multivariate Regression Modeling Need Author
Obtaining the Denominator for Person Time Rates Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD There are two methods for obtaining the denominator for person time rates. Method ...
Study Analysis Plan Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD When Written Written before the data are analyzed Study Analysis Plan Content Detailed description ...
Simpson's Paradox Definition of Simpson Paradox References #CatesSimpson Cates, C. J. (2002). Simpson's paradox and calculation of number needed to treat from ...
Variance Definition of Variance Jeff Martin, MD MaryB 17 Apr 2009
Summary Estimators: Woolf's Method Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD This is one method for calculating summary adjusted estimators when making adjustments in the ...
Association Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Association Relationship between two or more events or variables. Measuring Disease Association ...
Measure of Association Risk Difference Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Why Use Risk Difference? Risk difference gives an absolute measure of the association ...
Study Base Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of a Study Base A study base, also called a reference population , is a defined population whose disease ...
Primary Study Base A study base, also called a reference population , is a defined population whose disease experience during some period of time is the source of ...
Secondary Study Base Lead Editor(s): Jeff Martin, MD A study base, also called a reference population , is a defined population whose disease experience during ...
Cohort Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of a Cohort Any well defined population can be thought of as a cohort that continues to recruit new subjects ...
Study Conduct Documentation Return to Reproducible Research Methodology #DocumentDataCollection Documenting Clinical Study Data Collection #ErrorsDataCollection ...
Control Lead Author(s): Definition of a Control
Study Design Strength of design rests on accurate measurements made prior to the outcome, not whether it is cohort or case control sampling Jeff Martin, MD MaryB ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Is the study primarily collecting or analyzing data from or about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments at the level of individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments at the level of individual humans? NO Q2: Measurements/Assessments ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Is the study primarily collecting or analyzing data from or about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry? ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Is the study primarily collecting or analyzing data from or about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry? ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments at the level of individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode ...
The Study Design Organizer Q1: Is the study primarily collecting or analyzing data from or about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry? ...
The Study Design Organizer Q1: Is the study primarily collecting or analyzing data from or about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry? ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments at the level of individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode ...
The Study Design Organizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Organizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
The Study Design Categorizer Q1: Does the study use or collect measurements or assessments about individual humans? YES Q2: What is the primary mode of inquiry ...
Study Design Elements Study Design Element 1: Identify the Population The first key element in study design that uses observation of individuals is to identify the ...
Disease Occurrence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Measuring Disease Occurrence Occurrence of disease is the fundamental outcome measurement of epidemiology ...
Incidence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Incidence Incidence counts new disease diagnoses during a defined time period . Incidence vs Prevalence ...
Cumulative Incidence Person Time Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Cumulative Incidence The proportion of individuals who experience the ...
Incidence Rate Using Person Time Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Incidence Rate Using Person Time The number of events divided by the amount ...
Measurement Definition of Measurement MaryB 20 Feb 2009
Prevalence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD #PrevalentTerm Definition of Prevalence Prevalence counts existing disease diagnoses , usually at a single point ...
Period Prevalence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Period Prevalence Period prevalence is the number of persons with a specific disease at one ...
Point Prevalence Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Point Prevalence Point prevalence is the number of persons with disease in a time interval ...
When Is Study Done? Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Prospective and Retrospective Prospective and retrospective refer to when the study is done in relation ...
Interaction Effect Modifier Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Interaction When the magnitude of a measure of association between exposure ...
Matching Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Matching Definition of Matching : Match unexposed or non case subjects to those of the comparison ...
Randomization Definition of Randomization Definition of Randomization : random assignment of subjects to exposure (e.g., treatment) categories One of the three ...
Restriction Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Definition of Restriction Definition of Restriction : Restrict enrollment to only those subjects who have a specific ...
Study Time: Periods Need Author
Study Time: Close out Visit Needs Author
Unit of Observation Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Study design begins with the unit of observation( note diagram). Either the observations are: Made ...
Style Guide for Contributors Return to Help for Contributors Titles Section Headings When first creating a page, be sure to put a title at the top. For continuity ...
DanielRosenblum 29 Aug 2011 Publications References
Notification of Changes Return to Help for Contributors If you want to be notified of changes on the CTSpedia web, Go to this page, click on edit, and add your ...
BERD Approved Success Stories Open to the Public Return to CTSpedia Home Page Listing of Approved BERD Success Stories for BERD Watch %SEARCH{ "META:FIELD. ...
BERD Success Stories Form Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Title text 40 Provide a title for your project(s) Year ...
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Methodological help can be in short supply when preparing a grant application. To help young investigators develop valid and robust methods for their research plan ...
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SallyThurston 12 Mar 2010 summarize.R: summarize.R summarize.example.R: summarize.example.R example.pdf: pdf file output from running summarize.example ...
Return to Residency Training Programs Instructions for Completing Summary Residency Project Form Year One: Study Preparation Type of Study (Links) Describe ...
Survival Time : 2 Arm Jill wants to test the efficacy of a treatment versus a control. Thus she wants to use a 2 arm design. So far, we know that Jill is going to ...
Survival Time : 2 Arm : Checklist The following is a checklist that may be helpful to take with you when you consult with a statistician. This provides some information ...
Survival Time : 2 Arm : Nonparametric Form The sample size formula for a survival time response variable that is measured once, using a 2 arm design is provided below ...
Survival Time : 2 Arm : Parametric Form The sample size formula for a survival time response variable that is measured once, using a 2 arm design is provided below ...
Survival Time : 3 Arm Jill wants to test the efficacy of two different treatments versus a control. Thus she wants to use a 3 arm design. So far, we know that Jill ...
Survival Time Survival time is the time until an event. Examples include the time until death, time until disease recurrence, time until cured. ErinEsp 01 Feb ...
Survival Time : Factorial Jill wants to test the efficacy of two treatments taken separately and also taken together. She will need to use a factorial design. So ...
Survival Time In Jill's study, she is interested in testing the efficacy of a treatment on prolonging the time until the return of disease activity. Thus her response ...
Survival Analysis Needs Author
A simple example of a statistical analysis using Sweave The document is essentially written in LaTeX with specially marked chunks of R code inserted along the way ...
Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Attributes Contributor text 100 CTSA Institution text 100 Disclaimer ...
Exact Logistic Regression and Synergistic Effects Carly attended the drop in biostatistics workshop with the following data: Trt1 Trt2 Count Total 0 ...
Disease Association Risk Ratio Lead Author: Jeff Martin, MD Risk Ratio Probability of disease, ate salad 54/70 0.77 Probability of disease, no salad 2 ...
Cumulative IncidenceMove Perhaps most intuitive measure of incidence since it is just proportion of those observed who got the disease Proportion probability ...
Comparing Disease IncidenceMove in a Cohort Why Use IncidenceMove Rates 1 To calculate incidence from population based disease registries 1 To compare disease ...
Comparing IncidenceMove in Exposed and Unexposed Why Use IncidenceMove Rates? 1 To calculate incidence from population based disease registries 1 To compare ...
Rate versus Risk Two basic measures of the occurrence of new events (disease) Cumulative incidence Risk Probability IncidenceMove rate Rate ...
Calculating a Person Time Rate How to Calculate a Person Time Rate: Obtaining the Denominator Method 1: If you have exact entry, censoring, and event times ...
Calculating a Rate from Population Based Registries Why Use IncidenceMove Rates? To calculate incidence from population based disease registries There are a number ...
Measuring Disease Occurrence Occurrence of disease is the fundamental outcome measurement of epidemiology Occurrence of disease is typically a binary ...
TICR Introduction to Epidemiology Definitions of Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants (causes) of disease e.g., cardiovascular epidemiology ...
Cross Sectional Study Design Diagram Cross Sectional Study Design http://twiki.library.ucsf.edu/twiki/bin/viewfile/CTSpedia/TICRStudyDesign?rev 1;filename Crosssectional ...
BarbaraGrimes 13 Mar 2009 Table1 Preliminary Checklist First check "N " Is this the number of observations you were expecting? Continuous Variables: 1 Are ...
Table1.sas: Summarizes continuous and categorical variables by subgroups Sample Table1 job.sas: SAS job to illustrate the use of Table1 macro Sample Table1 ...
AlanBostrom 01 May 2009 Table1Macro Macro, Checklist, Sample Job and Sample Output Table1Print Macro to print output from Table1 Macro
Common mistakes when describing a study population (the typical Table 1) Reports of both observational and experimental studies typically include descriptive summaries ...
AlanBostrom 01 May 2009 Table1Print.sas: copy of macro
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Return to Ethics Stat Calendar http://www.flames statistics.eu/events/flames summer school closing lecture (abstract)
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Name Type Size Values Tooltip message Event text 40 Add name of event. Meeting Date text 30 Use format YYYY MM DD Time ...
Technical Updates Return to CTSpedia Web Home To report a new problem please click on the edit button at the bottom of the table, and then select "add row." ...
Templates for Creating Univariate Scatterplots Why use univariate scatterplots instead of bar graphs when presenting continuous data? Scientists often use bar and ...
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It is a good idea to go to the website of the data set you are interested in to see if you can answer the questions on the home page by browsing the website. If not ...
Header Overview Definition Related Terms Related Articles Relates Forum Postings
Type 3 p value This is a p value for the composite null hypothesis that all levels of a categorical predictor have the same effect on the outcome as the reference ...
Most survey designs over sample certain minority populations, which means that weighting will need to be used in analyses to give accurate results. There may also ...
Quarterly Updates September December 30, 2010 Name Link Auto View Plugin Debug Log Plugin Dojo Toolkit Contrib Dp Syntax Highlighter Plugin ...
Using a National Database Leading Author(s): Yolanda Hagar Helpful Tips, Hints and Things to Consider Using a national database can be very advantageous. The ...
Univ of Utah SDBC Analysis Plan Template 2015 (Whenever you use these materials, please acknowlege Lisa Pappas and the The University of Utah Study Design and ...
Univ of Utah SDBC Statistical Report Template 2015 (Whenever you use these materials, please acknowlege Lisa Pappas and the The University of Utah Study Design ...
University of Utah Templates Statistical Plan Template Principal Investigator: Principal Investigator Statistician: Author Date: Publish Date Introduction ...
Utah RR Templates Permission Right click: Utah Statistical Analysis Plan Template and save link to your computer. Right click: Utah Statistical Report Template ...
Utility Macros These are macros that are often used within higher level macros. Utilities for data manipulation Univariate.sas (rev 3): Calculates summary statistics ...
Validity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Types of Validity There are two types of validity: Internal : Inference from the study sample to the source population ...
External Validity or Generalizability Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD What is External Validity or Generalizability? External validity is a measure of how well ...
Measurement Validity Sensitivity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD What Is Sensitivity? Sensitivity is the ability of a measurement to identify correctly ...
Measurement Validity Specificity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD What Is Specificity? Specificity is the ability of a measurement to identify correctly ...
Internal Validity Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD What Is Study or Internal Validity? Study validity is what we refer to as internal validity or a measure of ...
Value Column Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD In output from regression modeling macros, this gives the particular level of a categorical predictor that the results ...
PS: Power and Sample Size Calculation Contributors: William D. Dupont and Walton D. Plummer, Jr. PS is an interactive program for performing power and sample size ...
Constant or Fixed Variable Lead Author(s): Definition of a Constant Variable Definition of a Fixed Variable
Intermediary Variable Lead Author(s): Intermediary Variable Is Not a Confounder As seen in the diagram below a variable that is an intermediate step in the ...
Nominal Variable Definition of a Nominal Variable MaryB 03 Feb 2009
Third Variable: Intermediate, Effect Modifier, Confounder or No Effect Lead Author(s): Jeff Martin, MD Third Variable When evaluating association between an exposure ...
Variable Column Lead Author(s): Peter Bacchetti, PhD In output from regression modeling macros, this column gives the name of the predictor or independent variable ...
What is Version Control? Version control was developed by software engineers to manage the files comprising a software project. Creating and maintaining a software ...
Web based Interactive System for Study Design, Optimization and Management (WISDOM) WISDOM for Web based Interactive system for Study Design, Optimization, and Management ...
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Web Services for Tasks Associated with Statistical Analyses These resources go beyond statistical calculators, but do not require computational skills. MuStat/ustat ...
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Wessa.net http://www.wessa.net/ Wessa.net is an online resource of statistical calculators and forecasting tools. Wessa.net offers these software applications ...
What Went Wrong During the Clinical Research Project Return to CTSpedia Web Home We would like to know what problems you have encountered in your clinical projects ...
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GREAT SITES GREAT CONNECTIONS 1 QUESTIONS for the experts Questions about data methods 2 Frank Harrell can help with your statistical questions Statistical Thinking ...
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YinglinXia 14 Sep 2010 ExampleRun.sas: An Example using SAS macro ZIPCheckFit zipcheckfit.sas7bdat: SAS dat set used in the example ZIPCheckFit.sas ...
"R Function to model zero inflated Poisson like log models with missing data at post points" ZIP.r: Zero inflated Poisson R program ZIPexample.r: An Example ...
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